Sunday, September 15, 2019
Soccer Ã¢â¬â or football, as it is called by the rest of the world outside the United States Ã¢â¬â is surely the most popular sport in the world. Every four years, the world championship of soccer, the World Cup, is watched by literally billions all over the world, beating out the United States professional football's Superbowl by far. It is estimated that 1. 7 billion television viewers watched the World Cup final between France and Brazil in July of 1998. And it is also a genuine world championship, involving teams from 32 countries in the final rounds, unlike the much more parochial and misnamed World Series in American baseball (that doesn't even involve Japan or Cuba, two baseball hotbeds). But although soccer has become an important sport in the American sports scene, it will never make inroads into the hearts and markets of American sports the way that football, basketball, hockey, baseball, and even tennis and golf have done. There are many reasons for this. The biggest reason for soccer's failure as a mass appeal sport in the United States is that it doesn't conform easily to the demands of television. Basketball succeeds enormously in America because it regularly schedules what it calls Ã¢â¬Å"television time-outsÃ¢â¬ as well as the time-outs that the teams themselves call to re-group, not to mention half-times and, on the professional level, quarter breaks. Those time-outs in the action are ideally made for television commercials. And television coverage is the lifeblood of American sports. College basketball lives for a game scheduled on CBS or ESPN (highly recruited high school players are more likely to go to a team that regularly gets national television exposure), and we could even say that television coverage has dictated the pace and feel of American football. Anyone who has attended a live football game knows how commercial time-outs slow the game and sometimes, at its most exciting moments, disrupt the flow of events. There is no serious objection, however, because without television, football knows that it simply wouldn't remain in the homes and hearts of Americans. Also, without those advertising dollars, the teams couldn't afford the sky-high salaries of their high-priced superstars. Soccer, on the other hand, except for its half-time break, has no time-outs; except for half-time, it is constant run, run, run, run, back and forth, back and forth, relentlessly, with only a few seconds of relaxation when a goal is scored, and that can happen seldom, sometimes never. The best that commercial television coverage can hope for is an injury time-out, and in soccer that happens only with decapitation or disembowelment. Second, Americans love their violence, and soccer doesn't deliver on this score the way that American football and hockey do. There are brief moments, spurts of violence, yes, but fans can't expect the full-time menu of bone-crushing carnage that American football and hockey can deliver minute after minute, game after game. In soccer, players are actually singled out and warned Ã¢â¬â shamed, with embarrassingly silly Ã¢â¬Å"yellow cards,Ã¢â¬ for acts of violence and duplicity that would be smiled at in most American sports other than tennis and golf. Third, it is just too difficult to score in soccer. America loves its football games with scores like 49 to 35 and a professional basketball game with scores below 100 is regarded as a defensive bore. In soccer, on the other hand, scores like 2 to 1, even 1 to 0, are commonplace and apparently desirable; games scoreless at the end of regulation time happen all the time. (In the 515 games played in the final phase in the history of the World Cup games through 1994, only 1584 goals have been scored. That's three a game! And if there is no resolution at the end of overtime, the teams resort to a shoot-out that has more to do with luck than with real soccer skills. Worse yet, it is possible for a team to dominate in terms of sheer talent and Ã¢â¬Å"shots-on-goalÃ¢â¬ and still lose the game by virtue of a momentary lapse in defensive attention, a stroke of bad luck, and the opponent's break-away goal. Things like that can happen, too, in baseball, but the problem somehow evens out over baseball's very long season of daily games. In soccer, it just isn't fair. Soccer authorities should consider making the goal smaller and doing away with the goalie to make scoring easier. And the business of starting over after each goal, in the middle of the field, has to be reconsidered. It's too much like the center-jump after each goal in the basketball game of yesteryear. It seems unlikely that Americans will ever fully comprehend or appreciate a sport in which players are not allowed to use their arms and hands. Although the footwork of soccer players is a magnificent skill to behold, most American fans are perplexed by straitjacketed soccer players' inability and unwillingness to Ã¢â¬Å"pick up the darn ball and run with it! Ã¢â¬ The inability to use substitutes (unless the player to be substituted for is lying dead or maimed on the field of play) is also bewildering to Americans, who glorify the Ã¢â¬Å"sixth manÃ¢â¬ in basketball and a baseball game in which virtually the entire roster (including an otherwise unemployable old man called Ã¢â¬Å"the designated hitterÃ¢â¬ ) is deployed on the field at one time or another. Finally, the field in soccer is enormous. Considerably larger than the American football field, the soccer field could contain at least a dozen basketball courts. Americans like their action condensed, in a small field of vision Ã¢â¬â ten enormous sweaty people bouncing off one another and moving rapidly through a space the size of a medium-sized bedroom, twenty-two even larger people in bulky uniforms converging on a small, oddly shaped ball. In soccer, on the other hand, there is a premium on Ã¢â¬Å"spreading out,Ã¢â¬ not infringing upon the force field occupied by a team-mate, so that fancy foot-passing is possible. This spreading out across the vast meadow of the soccer playing field does not lend itself, again, to close get-down-and-dirty television scrutiny. Soccer is a great sport and it certainly deserves the increased attention and popularity it is getting on all levels. But Ã¢â¬â primarily, again, because it does not lend itself to television Ã¢â¬â it will never make it big in the United States the way these other sports have, not until it changes some of its fundamental strategies.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Compare / Contrast Antigone and Creon There is always going to be some kind of conflict in a family. It may happen often, and sometimes rarely. In the century-old story Antigone there is a huge conflict. Antigones brother, Polyneices, refuses to pass on the throne. Therefore, he and his brother Etheocles go to war, and they both end up killing each other. Therefore, it resulted in Polyneices death. When he died, Creon; the ruler of Thebes, refuses to let anyone bury him.So he will be left in public shame. Not regarding any of the laws Creon created, and ignoring what her family says, Antigone goes ahead and covers him with some dirt and Ã¢â¬Å"buriesÃ¢â¬ him. To begin with, Antigone has gone through a hardship. She has lost her brother and her family is very mad with her, since they have also been brought into the conflict. Antigone is very strong; she does what she wants without thinking twice. She is also very sneaky. She buried her brother without anyone noticing.The blame was even put on her timid sister, Ismene. Who was later questioned by Creon, and also was held by him until she was found innocent. But Antigone already knows her consequences, so she is ready if she is caught. Antigone also follows the Gods law. She believes that manmade law must harmonize with the Gods law. She is lead by her emotions and what her heart tells her to do. Antigone strongly believes that both of her brothers deserve burial rights, therefore she fights for it.On the other hand, Creon differs somewhat. Creon inherited the throne after Oedipus was killed. He only honored Ethocles, and announced that no one would be allowed to bury Polyneices. As you can tell, Creon likes to go by the laws he created, not by the Gods. Creon doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like to listen to others opinions about the situation. Haemon, his son, tries to convince Creon to not bury Antigone. Yet, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even take a second to think about it. Haemon then mentions Creons ruling is tyranny, not government .
Friday, September 13, 2019
Approaches of New Criticism Essay A literary movement that started in the late 1920s and 1930s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the workÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship to literary history. New Criticism proposed that a work of literary art should be regarded as autonomous, and so should not be judged by reference to considerations beyond itself. A poem consists less of a series of referential and verifiable statements about the Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢ world beyond it, than of the presentation and sophisticated organization of a set of complex experiences in a verbal form (Hawkes, pp. 150-151). Major figures of New Criticism include I. A. Richards, T. S. Eliot, Cleanth Brooks, David Daiches, William Empson, Murray Krieger, John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, F. R. Leavis, Robert Penn Warren, W. K. Wimsatt, R. P. Blackmur, Rene Wellek, Ausin Warren, and Ivor Winters. A form of criticism based largely on the works of C. G. Jung (YOONG) and Joseph Campbell (and myth itself). Some of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s major figures include Robert Graves, Francis Fergusson, Philip Wheelwright, Leslie Fiedler, Northrop Frye, Maud Bodkin, and G. Wilson Knight. These critics view the genres and individual plot patterns of literature, including highly sophisticated and realistic works, as recurrences of certain archetypes and essential mythic formulae. Archetypes, according to Jung, are Ã¢â¬Å"primordial imagesÃ¢â¬ ; the Ã¢â¬Å"psychic residueÃ¢â¬ of repeated types of experience in the lives of very ancient ancestors which are inherited in the Ã¢â¬Å"collective unconsciousÃ¢â¬ of the human race and are expressed in myths, religion, dreams, and private fantasies, as well as in the works of literature (Abrams, p. 10, 112). Some common examples of archetypes include water, sun, moon, colors, circles, the Great Mother, Wise Old Man, etc. In terms of archetypal crit icism, the color white might be associated with innocence or could signify death or the supernatural. The application of specific psychological principles (particularly those of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan [zhawk lawk-KAWN]) to the study of literature. Psychoanalytic criticism may focus on the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche, the study of the creative process, the study of psychological types and principles present within works of literature, or the effects of literature upon its readers (Wellek and Warren, p. 81). In addition to Freud and Lacan, major figures include Shoshona Felman, Jane Gallop, Norman Holland, George Klein, Elizabeth Wright, Frederick Hoffman, and, Simon Lesser. A sociological approach to literature that viewed works of literature or art as the products of historical forces that can be analyzed by looking at the material conditions in which they were formed. In Marxist ideology, what we often classify as a world view (such as the Victorian age) is actually the articulations of the dominant class. Marxism generally focuses on the clash between the dominant and repressed classes in any given age and also may encourage art to imitate what is often termed an Ã¢â¬Å"objectiveÃ¢â¬ reality. Contemporary Marxism is much broader in its focus, and views art as simultaneously reflective and autonomous to the age in which it was produced. The Frankfurt School is also associated with Marxism (Abrams, p. 178, Childers and Hentzi, pp. 175-179). Major figures include Karl Marx, Terry Eagleton, Fredric Jameson, Raymond Williams, Louis Althusser (ALT-whos-sair), Walter Benjamin (ben-yeh-MEEN), Antonio Gramsci (GRAWM-shee), Georg Lukacs (lou-KOTCH), and Friedrich Engels, Theordor Adorno (a-DOR-no), Edward Ahern, Gilles Deleuze (DAY-looz) and Felix Guattari (GUAT-eh-ree Literally, postcolonialism refers to the period following the decline of colonialism, e.g., the end or lessening of domination by European empires. Although the term postcolonialism generally refers to the period after colonialism, the distinction is not always made. In its use as a critical approach, postcolonialism refers to Ã¢â¬Å"a collection of theoretical and critical strategies used to examine the culture (literature, politics, history, and so forth) of former colonies of the European empires, and their relation to the rest of the worldÃ¢â¬ (Makaryk 155 Ã¢â¬â see General Resources below). Among the many challenges facing postcolonial writers are the attempt both to resurrect their culture and to combat preconceptions about their culture. Edward Said, for example, uses the word Orientalism to describe the discourse about the East constructed by the West. Major figures include Edward Said (sah-EED), Homi Bhabha (bah-bah), Frantz Fanon (fah-NAWN), Gayatri Spivak, Chinua Ach ebe (ah-CHAY-bay) , Wole Soyinka, Salman Rushdie, Jamaica Kincaid, and Buchi Emecheta Existentialism is a philosophy (promoted especially by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus) that views each person as an isolated being who is cast into an alien universe, and conceives the world as possessing no inherent human truth, value, or meaning. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, then, as it moves from the nothingness from which it came toward the nothingness where it must end, defines an existence which is both anguished and absurd (Guerin). In a world without sense, all choices are possible, a situation which Sartre viewed as human beings central dilemma: Ã¢â¬Å"Man [woman] is condemned to be free.Ã¢â¬ In contrast to atheist existentialism, SÃ ¸ren Kierkegaard theorized that belief in God (given that we are provided with no proof or assurance) required a conscious choice or Ã¢â¬Å"leap of faith.Ã¢â¬ The major figures include SÃ ¸ren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre (sart or SAR-treh), Albert Camus (kah-MUE or ka-MOO) , Simone de Beauvoir (bohv -WAHR) , Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers (YASS-pers), and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (mer-LOH pawn-TEE). Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation. The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part (Hawkes, p. 11). Structuralists believe that all human activity is constructed, not natural or Ã¢â¬Å"essential.Ã¢â¬ Consequently, it is the systems of organization that are important (what we do is always a matter of selection within a given construct). By this formulation, Ã¢â¬Å"any activity, from the actions of a narrative to not eating oneÃ¢â¬â¢s peas with a knife, takes place within a system of differences and has meaning only in its relation to other possible activities within that system, not to some mean ing that emanates from nature or the divineÃ¢â¬ (Childers & Hentzi, p. 286.). Major figures include Claude LÃ ©vi-Strauss (LAY-vee-strows), A. J. Greimas (GREE-mahs), Jonathan Culler, Roland Barthes (bart), Ferdinand de Saussure (soh-SURR or soh-ZHOR), Roman Jakobson (YAH-keb-sen), Vladimir Propp, and Terence Hawkes. Post-Structuralism and Deconstruction Post-Structuralism (which is often used synonymously with Deconstruction or Postmodernism) is a reaction to structuralism and works against seeing language as a stable, closed system. Ã¢â¬Å"It is a shift from seeing the poem or novel as a closed entity, equipped with definite meanings which it is the criticÃ¢â¬â¢s task to decipher, to seeing literature as irreducibly plural, an endless play of signifiers which can never be finally nailed down to a single center, essence, or meaningÃ¢â¬ (Eagleton 120 Ã¢â¬â see reference below under Ã¢â¬Å"General ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ). Jacques DerridaÃ¢â¬â¢s (dair-ree-DAH) paper on Ã¢â¬Å"Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human SciencesÃ¢â¬ (delivered in 1966) proved particularly influential in the creation of post-structuralism. Derrida argued against, in essence, the notion of a knowable center (the Western ideal of logocentrism), a structure that could organize the differential play of language or thought but somehow rema in immune to the same Ã¢â¬Å"playÃ¢â¬ it depicts (Abrams, 258-9). DerridaÃ¢â¬â¢s critique of structuralism also heralded the advent of deconstruction thatÃ¢â¬âlike post-structuralismÃ¢â¬âcritiques the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"originÃ¢â¬ built into structuralism. In negative terms, deconstructionÃ¢â¬âparticularly as articulated by DerridaÃ¢â¬âhas often come to be interpreted as Ã¢â¬Å"anything goesÃ¢â¬ since nothing has any real meaning or truth. More positively, it may posited that Derrida, like Paul de Man (de-MAHN) and other post-structuralists, really asks for rigor, that is, a type of interpretation that is constantly and ruthlessly self-conscious and on guard. Similarly, Christopher Norris (in Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Wrong with Postmodernism?Ã¢â¬ ) launches a cogent argument against simplistic attacks of DerridaÃ¢â¬â¢s theories: Approaches of New Criticism. (2016, Dec 24).
A Closer Look Into the Works of Wolfgang A. Mozart - Essay Example In all of Mozart's supreme expressions of suffering and terror, there is something shockingly voluptuous."Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is considered one of the musical genius who produced various masterpieces during the classical period. Being a prolific composer during his life, he has composed a wide array of musical masterpieces which are widely acknowledged as "pinnacles of symphonic, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. These output became closely identified as parts of the standard concert repertory and are regarded as "masterpieces of the classical style (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1)."Mozart was born in the city of Salzburg to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart. When he was about three years old, Mozart's father noticed his unique musical ability.Through his father, one of Europe's leading musical teachers that time, Mozart received his intensive musical training. His father taught him to play the clavier, violin and organ. This began the famous composers' musical career wher e his formative years were spent in successful journeys throughout Europe--beginning with an exhibition in 1762 at the Court of the Elector of Bavaria in Munich and another at Imperial Court in Vienna during the same year. Afterwhich a long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking him with his father to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London, The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zrich, Donaueschingen, and Munich. However, they went back to Vienna during 1767 (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 2-6). It was in Vienna where Mozart encountered huge successes in opera. This paper will further examine the musical style utilized by Mozart in his famous compositions. As his works are generally classified as "classical masterpieces" a good starting point will be a general description of the characteristics of classical music. The next part will then tackle his works and musical style as well as Morton's characterization of the "Mozart's Musical Trademark." Social factors and other composers styles and influences which are incorporated in his works will also be examined. This report will conclude with its findings. Mozart Musical Style: Archetypal Example of Classical Style The musical style of Mozart, like that of the other Austrian composer Haydn, are considered as "archetypal example of the classical style." Accordingly, the classical period is characterized by the proliferation of music which generally has gradual and sudden contrast in mood, flexible rhythm, homophonic texture, and folkish melody. The type of music during this period can also be identified as having a more orderly and symmetric musical design compared to other eras. It should also be noted that the classical period marked the rise of amateur musicianas the the popularity of piano over the hapsichord. Accordingly, the musical style of Mozart closely paralleled the development of the classical music as a whole. This musical style was applied to his compositions which spans almost all musical genre including symphony, opera, the solo concerto, chamber music which includes string quartet and string quintet, and the piano sonata. While none of the aforementioned genre are new during his period, Mozart is regarded as having single-handedly developed and popularized the solo concerto. The composer is also famous among religious sects as he composed a great deal of religious music known as masses. His versatility as a composer also enabled him to venture into other musical forms like dances, divertimenti, serenades and other forms of light entertainment (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 23-24). Mozart's compositions greatly embody the
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Pap smear recommendations 2012 - Research Paper Example This helps the doctor in examining the cervix and the vagina. It collects some cells and some mucus from the cervix and the surrounding area and then the cells are placed in a bottle of liquid or on a slide. The collected cells are then sent to a laboratory so as to be checked whether they are normal. At the same time, the doctor can as well carry out a pelvic exam by checking the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s ovaries, uterus plus the other organs to ensure that there are no problems with them. The Pap test which screens for cervical cancer may be one of the best and reliable available cancer screening tests (Bartlett, p, 34) The Pap test only screens for cervical cancer while it does not screen for uterine, ovarian, valve or vaginal cancers. It can take up to three weeks before a woman receive her Pap test results. If anything abnormal is observed, the doctor can conduct the associated and finger out the best way of making the follow up. If the pap test are not normal, this does not mean that she has cancer but if the tests show that the test is not normal and may result to cancer, the doctor can advice the woman on the measures taken for its treatment so as to prevent it from developing. It is the best option for a woman to make follow ups with her doctor to learn more about her test results and the treatment that may be required. Women should get pap tests after every three years at the ages of between 21 and 29 years. For women of 30 years and above who had three normal pap tests each year may be tested less often for every two or three years. The combination of the Pap test and the HPV is the most preferred plan for women over thirty years. Screening is on the other hand not preferred for women of age 65 or older who have had the Pap test three times in a row and have been found with no pap abnormality tests for the last ten tears. Women with the normal Pap test result and a positive HPV test result should
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Muslim Religion- Analyzing Their Beliefs- as they relate to Health Care - Essay Example However, large communities are also located throughout Europe Ã¢â¬â the UK, France, Belgium, Germany, China and Russia (BBC News, 2005). About 50 countries are said to consist of Muslim-majority population. Of them 62% live in Asia Ã¢â¬â namely India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia. (BBC News, 2005). Only 20% of Muslims live in the Arab countries and the Middle East. From the non-Arab countries the largest Muslim-majority countries are Turkey and Egypt (BBC News, 2005). Green (2009) reports that approximately 87% - 90% of the Muslims are Sunni and the vast majority of the rest 10% - 13% are ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a. 2.) Describe the religious beliefs of the group as they relate to health related issues such as birth, death, illness, health, treatment, etc.. Also describe any religious rituals associated with health or illness practiced by the group. For Muslims the most important aspect of their religious observation includes cleanliness. On the seventh day after the baby was born the head has been shaved. This ritual indicates that the child now is a servant of Allah (Islam, 2010). Other important fact concerning the healthcare of the Muslims is related to their daily diet. They are forbidden to consume pork or alcohol. In Muslim dietary there is a certain proportion that has to be observed one-third should be food, one-third water and one-third air. However, not many Muslims stick to this balance (Bilal, n.d.). Crane (2010) comments extensively the healthcare traditions in Muslims, though, she points out that there are many who do not leave in a Muslim majority country. According to Crane (2010) Muslims believe that there is a cure for every illness and besides general medicine they apply other alternative medications. Also blood transfusion and organ transplantation are acceptable, although this contradicts with the statement that there is a tradition of respect for the body
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
The Law of Evidence - Essay Example Within the Received View, the importance of testimony in the language of perception runs even deeper. Our daily conversations and descriptions of events are suffused with opinion, interpretation, and evaluation. Often we are allowed only to agree with the leading questions of our conversation partners, questions themselves suffused with assumptions, opinions, interpretations, and evaluation (Pattenden, 1986). Such conversations are about matters of interest but are, much more, occasions by which the speakers constitute and reform their relationship, an enterprise often well served by the sharing of opinions and judgments. The factual accuracy of the accounts is usually of less significance than self-revelation and invitations to reciprocity. By contrast, testimony in response to non-leading questions in the language of perception provides the jury exactly what it needs to decide the case according to the norms embedded in the instructions: an artificially stripped-down, value-free account of the witness's perceptions (Allen, 2005). These perceptions are a kind of "prime matter," as Aristotle put it, utterly plastic to both the jury's empirical generalizations and, more important, to the legal norms embedded in the instructions. Testimony in the language of perception reduces the likelihood that the jury will simply adopt the moral or political judgments smuggled into the "descriptions" by an authoritative or sympathetic witness. It is often suggested that the vigour with which the rule against hearsay is still applied in criminal cases is attributable to the phenomenon of trial by jury in criminal trials on indictment. Juries, it is said, cannot be expected to assess properly the reliability of hearsay evidence on a case-by-case basis, and thus it is preferable that a blanket ban on such evidence be maintained. Concern about the ability of juries to handle hearsay evidence was particularly prevalent in the 19th century, but its influence on current hearsay doctrine is still evident. 'It is probably no accident', Tapper has pointed out, 'that the hearsay rule is the same in both civil and criminal proceedings where the mode of trial is the same, whether in both cases by judge and jury as in the United States, or by judge alone as in South Africa; but different in England and Scotland, where the form of trial is quite different in civil and criminal proceedings.' Further, in Continental jurisdictions, where ve ry little reliance is placed on jury trial, there is no rule against hearsay of the sophisticated variety that exists in England. In Germany, for example, there is no formal ban on oral hearsay (although, in practice, such evidence is usually adduced only if the maker of the statement is unavailable, or to supplement her or his testimony and written hearsay is, subject to minor exceptions, freely admissible. France, like Germany, does not have a formal hearsay rule. The broad drift of the law of evidence has been to admit more and more hearsay evidence, and for the constitutional jurisprudence surrounding the